Monday, November 02, 2015

Soil Moisture Meter Project Using Microcontroller


Soil Moisture Meter Project Using Microcontroller
Microcontroller Based Soil Moisture Meter


Grove - Moisture Sensor :

Basically grove moisture sensor is used to measuring the moisture of the soil. It also can be used as water sensor.
We can water  plants according to its humidity by using the sensor .  Look at the sensor pictures and its pin out.
Grove - Moisture Sensor
Grove - Moisture Sensor
Soil Moisture Meter Project Using PIC Microcontroller
Soil Moisture Meter Project Using Microcontroller

Basic Concepts:

  The Moisture sensor will be connected with a pic microcntroller and a LCD display will also be connected with microcontroller . Moisture sensor will provide voltage into microcontroller's RA1 pin(ADC) according to the humidity of soil . It will provide reading from (0-721). After calculating the percentage and soil condition , the microcontroller sends out that data to the LCD Display . That's the basic concept .



ADC(Analog to Digital Converter ) :

We need a basic knowledge about ADC . Let's  take a look at here :
LPG Gas Leakage Detector using (MQ-9)  Gas Sensor and pic18f2550 Microcontroller
Thief Detector using PIC Microcontroller & PIR Motion Sensor
ADCON1 Register
LPG Gas Leakage Detector using (MQ-9) Gas Sensor and pic Microcontroller


Basically ADC is like as voltage divider . According to voltage It produce output 
 bit 5 : VCFG0: Voltage Reference Configuration bit (VREF- source)
1 = VREF- (AN2)
0 = VSS or 0 volt


bit 4 :VCFG0: Voltage Reference Configuration bit (VREF+ source)
1 = VREF+ (AN3)
0 = VDD or 5volt


We will set  VCFG0[bit 5]=0and VCFG0[bit4]=0 . So we will get highest value 5volt[1023] and lowest value 0volt[0].The ADCON1 is a 10 bit register that means  2 to the power 10  is it's highest counting capacity and result is 1024 . So this register can count from 0 to 1023 . When 0 volt , we get reading at RA1 pin  0 .When 5 volt , we get reading at RA1 pin 1023. It means 5volt equivalent to 1023 .

As we know in water the sensor provide 722 data and  absolutely it should be 100% .
If   reading 744 means 100
So     ""        1     ""      (100/744) %
and   reading % of source reading will be (100/744)*source %

MikroC Source Code :

 


 sbit LCD_RS at LATB7_bit;  
 sbit LCD_EN at LATB6_bit;  
 sbit LCD_D4 at LATB5_bit;  
 sbit LCD_D5 at LATB4_bit;  
 sbit LCD_D6 at LATB3_bit;  
 sbit LCD_D7 at LATB2_bit;  
 sbit LCD_RS_Direction at TRISB7_bit;  
 sbit LCD_EN_Direction at TRISB6_bit;  
 sbit LCD_D4_Direction at TRISB5_bit;  
 sbit LCD_D5_Direction at TRISB4_bit;  
 sbit LCD_D6_Direction at TRISB3_bit;  
 sbit LCD_D7_Direction at TRISB2_bit;  
 // End LCD module connections  
 double source=0;   
 int view=0;  
 char txt[6];  
 void main() {  
 ADCON1=0x0D;         // Configure RE1 pin as input  
 CMCON=7;  
 TRISC.F4=0;  
  ADC_Init();            // Initialize ADC  
  Lcd_Init();            // Initialize LCD  
  Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_CLEAR);        // Clear display  
  Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_CURSOR_OFF);     // Cursor off  
     
  while(1){  
  source=Adc_Read(1);  
  source=100*source;  
  source=source/744;  
  inttostr(source,txt);  
  if(source>96){  
  source=100;  
  }  
  if(source>83){  
   Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_CLEAR);  
  Lcd_Out(1,3, "Water!!");  
  Lcd_Out(2,1, "Hum:");  
 Lcd_Out(2,5,txt);  
  Lcd_Chr(2,11,0x25);  
   Lcd_Chr(2,12,' ');  
    Lcd_Chr(2,13,' ');  
     Lcd_Chr(2,14,' ');  
      Lcd_Chr(2,15,' ');  
      Lcd_Chr(2,16,' ');  
    delay_ms(1000);  
  }   
  else if(source>40&&source<=83){  
   Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_CLEAR);  
  Lcd_Out(1,3, "Humid Soil");  
  Lcd_Out(2,1, "Hum:");  
 Lcd_Out(2,5,txt);  
  Lcd_Chr(2,11,0x25);  
   Lcd_Chr(2,12,' ');  
    Lcd_Chr(2,13,' ');  
     Lcd_Chr(2,14,' ');  
      Lcd_Chr(2,15,' ');  
      Lcd_Chr(2,16,' ');  
       PORTC.f4=0; //motor off  
    delay_ms(1000);  
  } else{  
   Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_CLEAR);  
  Lcd_Out(1,3, "Dry Soil");  
  Lcd_Out(2,1, "Hum:");  
 Lcd_Out(2,5,txt);  
  Lcd_Chr(2,11,0x25);  
   Lcd_Chr(2,12,' ');  
    Lcd_Chr(2,13,' ');  
     Lcd_Chr(2,14,' ');  
      Lcd_Chr(2,15,' ');  
      Lcd_Chr(2,16,' ');  
       PORTC.f4=1;  // motor on  
   delay_ms(1000);  
   PORTC.f4=1;  
  }  
 }  
 }  

  Circuit :

Microcontroller Based Soil Moisture Meter circuit
Microcontroller Based Soil Moisture Meter circuit


Result:

Soil Moisture Meter Project Using Microcontroller
Soil Moisture Meter Project Using Microcontroller

Practical Video of This Project



Download MikroC Project and images(Google Drive)

 

Thank You!


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