# Learn Embedded Programming [Step by Step]

## Thief Detector using Microcontroller & PIR Motion Sensor

For home security , we can build  " Thief Detector "  using  PIC 18f2550 microcontroller and PIR Motion Sensor . When something will be moving front to the sensor , the thief detector system will give an alarm to us . That's the basic theme of this project .

### PIR Motion Sensor :

Actually this sensor is continuously transmitting an Infrared Ray signal and receiving the reflected  signal . According to the information of  receiving signal it changes it's output signal . You can see the pin out of PIR Motion Sensor .
Generally  when something moving in the front of it  , the sensor produce 3.3 volt to it's out pin . Otherwise the out pin will be 0 volt . By applying this technique we can get information or status of out doors .
We will get the PIR Sensor connected with ADC(Analog to Digital Converter ) pin of PIC 18F2550 . We will use RA0 as input .

### ADC(Analog to Digital Converter ) :

We need a basic knowledge about ADC . Let's  take a look at here :

Basically ADC is like as voltage divider . According to voltage It produce output .

bit 5 : VCFG0: Voltage Reference Configuration bit (VREF- source)
1 = VREF- (AN2)
0 = VSS or 0 volt

bit 4 :VCFG0: Voltage Reference Configuration bit (VREF+ source)
1 = VREF+ (AN3)
0 = VDD or 5volt

We will set  VCFG0[bit 5]=0and VCFG0[bit4]=0 . So we will get highest value 5volt[1023] and lowest value 0volt[0].The ADCON1 is a 10 bit register that means  2 to the power 10  is it's highest counting capacity and result is 1024 . So this register can count from 0 to 1023 . When 0 volt , we get reading at RA0 pin  0 .When 5 volt , we get reading at RA0 pin 1023. It means 5volt equivalent to 1023 .

If  5 volt    equal    reading 1023 .
So 1  volt   equal    reading 1023/5  [When something detect PIR Sensor provide 3.3 volt at Output Pin]
So 3.3 volt equal  reading  (1023/5)*3.3 =675.8 . When we get reading 675 at ADC channel  , we understand  that sensor detects something . So it make PORTB.F6 pin high and Buzzer turns on .

### Source Code :

``````

void main() {
int  input;
CMCON=7;
TRISB.F6=0;
while (1) {
if(input>=675){
PORTB.F6=1;
delay_ms(4000);
}
PORTB.F6=0;
}
}

``````

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