Thursday, June 25, 2015

Digital Voting Machine Project Using PIC Microcontroller





Digital Voting Machine Using Microcontroller

Digital Voting Machine  is one kind of microcontroller based device which can be performed in election . Once I had made Digital Voting Machine when I was in 6th semester. Today I am going to share an upgrade version of  it . In the upgrade version I used  EEPROM of  PIC 18f2550  so that data can be saved during electricity failure. Now take a look on the picture :
Digital Voting Machine Circui
Digital Voting Machine Circuit

Description :

This Voting Machine conains 6 buttons for operation and two LEDs  for notification.

Candidate Category Button :

Button_RA0 : Candidate_1 .

Button_RA1 : Candidate_2 .

Button_RA2 : Candidate_3 .

Controling Button :

Button_RA4 : Control Button.

Status View Button :

Button_RC2 :  Status View  Button.

Result Button :

Button_RA3 : Final Result Button.


***Controling Button :

This is the main controller of all other buttons. Without having permission of  this button, any button can't perform. Without permission, reading instruction will not be taken. This will be placed in the presiding officer's room. Once he press the button and only one of these buttons can be permitted to perform only for one time. If any key or button is pressed, it works for one time and the system becomes disable automatically for voting until the presiding officer press control button again. So, one person will be able to vote for one time & voter will not be able to do that without permission of PO. Watch this video to understand completely.
Video of  Digital Voting Machine in Proteus :



Digital Voting Machine Using Microcontroller
digital voting machine

***Status View Button :

For security reason we are hiding the voting status from the voter and Only the PO(presiding officer) can check this. At first PO have to press "Control Button " and  LED 1 turns on when he can see the voting status by pressing "View Status" button. Current status will be shown only for a little time before getting back to the previous stage with turning on LED2.
Digital Voting Machine Using Microcontroller


*** Result Button :

When OP decide to publish who is winner , he just need to press "control button" and after that need to press Final Result Button . After Showing result , it will be reset and all data will be erased .
Digital Voting Machine Using Microcontroller


***Candidate Category Button :


When control button gives permission , only one of  "candidate button category" buttons can perform,  only for one time . After performing,  this will disable the system . Generally these buttons are incremented by one during each action .

***LED 1 & LED 2 :

Digital Voting Machine Using Microcontroller



When LED1 remains on , others buttons can perform . When LED2 remains on, all buttons are disabled.

Source Code :

   

 sbit LCD_RS at RB7_bit;  
 sbit LCD_EN at RB6_bit;  
 sbit LCD_D4 at RB5_bit;  
 sbit LCD_D5 at RB4_bit;  
 sbit LCD_D6 at RB3_bit;  
 sbit LCD_D7 at RB2_bit;  
 sbit LCD_RS_Direction at TRISB7_bit;  
 sbit LCD_EN_Direction at TRISB6_bit;  
 sbit LCD_D4_Direction at TRISB5_bit;  
 sbit LCD_D5_Direction at TRISB4_bit;  
 sbit LCD_D6_Direction at TRISB3_bit;  
 sbit LCD_D7_Direction at TRISB2_bit;  
 // End LCD module connections  
  short dat_can1=0,dat_can2=0,dat_can3=0,con=4;  
  char txt[]="        ";  
  char txt1[]="htp://pic18fmicrocontroller.blogspot.com";  
  char txt2[]="    Digital Voting Machine";  
  int i=0,j=0,chk=10;  
  char c1i='0',c1j='0',c1k='0';  
  char c2i,c2j,c2k;  
  char c3i,c3j,c3k;  
  int can_1adrs =15; // Keeping memory address for Candidate 1  
  int can_2adrs =19;   // Keeping memory address for Candidate 2  
  int can_3adrs = 29;   // Keeping memory address for Candidate 3  
  int chkk = 33,aq=0,b=0,aa=0,bb=0,cc=0;  
  char thirdchar(short dk){         ////find third Char of Short Data  
   aq=dk/100;  
   aa=aq*100;  
   aa=dk-aa;  
   if(aq==0)  
   { aa=dk;  
    return '0'; }  
   if(aq==1) return '1';  
   if(aq==2) return '2';  
   if(aq==3) return '3';  
   if(aq==4) return '4';  
   if(aq==5) return '5';  
   if(aq==6) return '6';  
   if(aq==7) return '7';  
   if(aq==8) return '8';  
   if(aq==9) return '9';  
  }  
    char secondchar(short dk){  ////find Second Char of Short Data  
   b=aa/10;  
   bb=b*10;  
   bb=aa-bb;  
   if(b==0)  
   { bb=dk;  
    return '0'; }  
   if(b==1) return '1';  
   if(b==2) return '2';  
   if(b==3) return '3';  
   if(b==4) return '4';  
   if(b==5) return '5';  
   if(b==6) return '6';  
   if(b==7) return '7';  
   if(b==8) return '8';  
   if(b==9) return '9';  
  }  
  char firstchar(short dk){ ////find first Char of Short Data  
   if(bb==0) return '0';  
   if(bb==1) return '1';  
   if(bb==2) return '2';  
   if(bb==3) return '3';  
   if(bb==4) return '4';  
   if(bb==5) return '5';  
   if(bb==6) return '6';  
   if(bb==7) return '7';  
   if(bb==8) return '8';  
   if(bb==9) return '9';  
  }  
 void main() {  
  ADCON1=0x0F;  
  CMCON=7;  
  TRISA.F0=1;  
  TRISA.F1=1;  
  TRISA.F2=1;  
  TRISA.F3=1;  
  TRISA.F4=1;  
  TRISC.F0=0;  
  TRISC.F1=0;  
  TRISC.F2=1;  
  Lcd_Init();  
   Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_CLEAR);        // Clear display  
  Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_CURSOR_OFF);  
  /////////////////////// Lcd Scroling Display Start  
   for(i=0;i<19;i++){  
   Lcd_Out(1,1,txt1);  
   Lcd_Out(2,1,txt2);  
   Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_SHIFT_LEFT);  
   delay_ms(200);  
     }  
    Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_CLEAR);  
  /////////////////////// Lcd Scroling Display End  
     for(j=0;j<16;j++){  
     Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_CLEAR);  
     txt[j]='.';  
   Lcd_Out(1,1," Starting...");  
   Lcd_Out(2,1,txt);  
      delay_ms(300);  
     }  
 dat_can1 = EEPROM_Read(can_1adrs); // reading previous data if avail able for Candidate 1  
 c1i=thirdchar(dat_can1); ///third  
 c1j=secondchar(dat_can1); //second  
 c1k=firstchar(dat_can1);   //first  
 //// these functions should be called with this structure  
 /// I used this , because MikroC's short to str conversion didn't work .  
 dat_can2=EEPROM_Read(can_2adrs); // reading previous data if avail able for Candidate 2  
 c2i=thirdchar(dat_can2);  
 c2j=secondchar(dat_can1);  
 c2k=firstchar(dat_can1);  
 dat_can3=EEPROM_Read(can_3adrs);   // reading previous data if avail able for Candidate 2  
 c3i=thirdchar(dat_can3);  
 c3j=secondchar(dat_can1);  
 c3k=firstchar(dat_can1);  
 Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_CLEAR);  
 if(dat_can3<=0){    // check if it runs for the first time , then set data null or 0  
  EEPROM_Write(can_3adrs,0);  
  dat_can3=EEPROM_Read(can_3adrs);  
 }  
 if(dat_can2<=0){      // check if it runs for the first time , then set data null or 0  
  EEPROM_Write(can_2adrs,0);  
  dat_can2=EEPROM_Read(can_2adrs);  
 }  
 if(dat_can1<=0){       // check if it runs for the first time , then set data null or 0  
  EEPROM_Write(can_1adrs,0);  
  dat_can1=EEPROM_Read(can_1adrs);  
 }  
 while(1){  
 c1i=thirdchar(dat_can1);   // It is taking the last update data for Candidate 1  
 c1j=secondchar(dat_can1);  
 c1k=firstchar(dat_can1);  
 c2i=thirdchar(dat_can2);    // It is taking the last update data for Candidate 2  
 c2j=secondchar(dat_can2);  
 c2k=firstchar(dat_can2);  
 c3i=thirdchar(dat_can3);        // It is taking the last update data for Candidate 3  
 c3j=secondchar(dat_can3);  
 c3k=firstchar(dat_can3);  
   Lcd_Out(1,1,"C_1 C_2 C_3");  
     Lcd_Chr(2,1,'*');  
     Lcd_Chr(2,2,'*');  
     Lcd_Chr(2,3,'*');  
     Lcd_Chr(2,6,'*');  
     Lcd_Chr(2,7,'*');  
     Lcd_Chr(2,8,'*');  
     Lcd_Chr(2,11,'*');  
     Lcd_Chr(2,12,'*');  
     Lcd_Chr(2,13,'*');  
  if(PORTA.F4==0){  // if control button is pressed , it enables voting.  
  con=3;  
 }  
 if(con!=3){    // if control button is not pressed ,naturally it disables voting.  
 Lcd_Out(2,15,"DV");  
 PORTC.F0=0;  
 PORTC.F1=1;     //LED2 is on  
 }  
 while(con==3){    // if control button is pressed , it enables voting.  
  Lcd_Out(2,15,"EV");  
 PORTC.F0=1;     //LED1 is on  
 PORTC.F1=0;  
 if(PORTC.F2==0){   // when view status button is pressed  
     Lcd_Chr(2,1,c1i);  
     Lcd_Chr(2,2,c1j);  
     Lcd_Chr(2,3,c1k);  
     Lcd_Chr(2,6,c2i);  
     Lcd_Chr(2,7,c2j);  
     Lcd_Chr(2,8,c2k);  
     Lcd_Chr(2,11,c3i);  
     Lcd_Chr(2,12,c3j);  
     Lcd_Chr(2,13,c3k);  
   delay_ms(4000);  
   con=5;    // con=5 makes disable voting  
  }  
    if(PORTA.F0==0){  
     dat_can1=dat_can1+1;   // Candidate 1 variable is incrementing .  
    EEPROM_Write(can_1adrs,dat_can1); // writing the incremented value on EEPROM for Candidate 1  
     con=5;    // con=5 makes disable voting  
    }  
    if(PORTA.F1==0){  
     dat_can2=dat_can2+1;      // Candidate 2 variable is incrementing .  
    EEPROM_Write(can_2adrs,dat_can2);   // writing the incremented value on EEPROM for Candidate 2  
     con=5;                  // con=5 makes disable voting  
    }  
    if(PORTA.F2==0){  
     dat_can3=dat_can3+1;          // Candidate 3 variable is incrementing .  
    EEPROM_Write(can_3adrs,dat_can3);     // writing the incremented value on EEPROM for Candidate 3  
     con=5;                   // con=5 makes disable voting  
    }  
   if(PORTA.F3==0){      // If Result Button is pressed .  
    Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_CLEAR);  
    for(j=1;j<17;j++){  
   Lcd_Out(1,1," Calculating...");  
   Lcd_Out(2,j,".");  
   delay_ms(200);  
     }  
    if(dat_can2>dat_can1&&dat_can2>dat_can3){  
     Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_CLEAR);  
   Lcd_Out(1,1,"Winner is C_2");  
   Lcd_Out(2,1,"Congratulation!!");  
     delay_ms(5000);  
   Lcd_Out(1,1,"Winner is C_2");  
   Lcd_Out(2,1,"He got =");  
     delay_ms(5000);  
     Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_CLEAR);  
          dat_can2=0;  
  //Erasing All Datas  
    dat_can1=0;  
    dat_can3=0;  
    EEPROM_Write(can_1adrs,0);  
    EEPROM_Write(can_2adrs,0);  
    EEPROM_Write(can_3adrs,0);  
    }  
   else if(dat_can1>dat_can2&&dat_can1>dat_can3){  
     Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_CLEAR);  
   Lcd_Out(1,1,"Winner is C_1");  
   Lcd_Out(2,1,"Congratulation!!");  
     delay_ms(5000);  
     Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_CLEAR);  
          dat_can2=0;  
    dat_can1=0;  
    dat_can3=0;  
    EEPROM_Write(can_1adrs,0);  
    EEPROM_Write(can_2adrs,0);  
    EEPROM_Write(can_3adrs,0);  
    }  
    else if(dat_can3>dat_can1&&dat_can3>dat_can2){  
     Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_CLEAR);  
   Lcd_Out(1,1,"Winner is C_3");  
   Lcd_Out(2,1,"Congratulation!!");  
     delay_ms(5000);  
     Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_CLEAR);  
      dat_can2=0;  
    dat_can1=0;  
    dat_can3=0;  
    EEPROM_Write(can_1adrs,0);  
    EEPROM_Write(can_2adrs,0);  
    EEPROM_Write(can_3adrs,0);  
    }  
    else{  
     Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_CLEAR);  
   Lcd_Out(1,1,"Something is");  
   Lcd_Out(2,1,"Worng!!!");  
     delay_ms(1000);  
     Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_CLEAR);  
    }  
     con=5;  
    }  
  }  
  }  
  } 

Circuit Diagram :

Digital Voting Machine Using Microcontroller
Digital Voting Machine Using Microcontroller

Video of  Digital Voting Machine in Practical :




                           Download This Project                                    


Thank You.





Wednesday, June 24, 2015

How to make PCB (Printed Circuit Board) at Home [step by step]

Today I will show how to make PCB at home. PCB means Printed Circuit Board. Would you like to know more about PCB? Please follow the link  Wikipedia.

How to make PCB (Printed Circuit Board) at Home [step by step]
We will need     1.Ferric Chloride  
                         2. Copper Board  
                         3. Glossy Paper .
                         4. Iron 
                         5. Drill Bit [Drill Bit 0.8mm]
                         6. Paint Thinner
                         7. Hand Gloves


How to make PCB (Printed Circuit Board) at Home [step by step]


How to make PCB (Printed Circuit Board) at Home [step by step]




Now follow me with my instructions.

Step 1:  

Open the PCB diagram with Foxit reader or Adobe reader. It doesn't matter what you are using, just make sure that you are printing it with 100% (Actual) size.

 How to make PCB (Printed Circuit Board) at Home [step by step]


 Now the picture will be looked like this :


 How to make PCB (Printed Circuit Board) at Home [step by step]

It is recommended, the printer should be Laser printer. If you don't have Laser printer don't worry, I have a solution. First print out the circuit diagram on a normal paper in 100% size. Now make a photo copy of the diagram with glossy paper  by photostat machine. Because both Laser printer and Photostat machine have same type of ink. 


Note : We are getting the circuit diagram on a glossy paper.



After printing the circuit will  look like that :


How to make PCB (Printed Circuit Board) at Home [step by step]


Keep it for future and look at step 2.


Step 2:

Buy a copper board and cut it with required dimension. If you are in Bangladesh , you can visit http://toolsbd.com to collect necessary parts. A little rubbing is required to make clean the copper board . Look at the picture :

How to make PCB (Printed Circuit Board) at Home [step by step]
 
Now using  Masking Tape, add  PCB Diagram with  Copper Board carefully . 
 
This picture of masking is collected from techtunes.com.bd .Some how i missed this step to capture
 We need to provide heat on this and we should use an Iron. Be careful, you don't need to provide very high temperature . At first keep it on copper board so that heat can spread. After 2or3 min, start ironing  smoothly. Keep it in mind that rough ironing will damage the copper board
 

How to make PCB (Printed Circuit Board) at Home [step by step]

How to make PCB (Printed Circuit Board) at Home [step by step]
 
After heating for 15or 20 mins. Now pour water on it carefully and keep it underwater at least 20 mins.  Look the picture here.
 

How to make PCB (Printed Circuit Board) at Home [step by step]



How to make PCB (Printed Circuit Board) at Home [step by step]
wait for 20 mins


Now  remove the paper carefully and carefully wash it by water. It will look like this 
 

How to make PCB (Printed Circuit Board) at Home [step by step]

Step 3:

Bring  a pot with water and provide some Ferric Chloride on that . Be careful you should provide
Ferric Chloride on water . Don't watering on Ferric Chloride . Now sink the copper board and keep moving the water pot slowly for 20 min . You will see that copper will be being vanished . 

How to make PCB (Printed Circuit Board) at Home [step by step]


How to make PCB (Printed Circuit Board) at Home [step by step]


How to make PCB (Printed Circuit Board) at Home [step by step]
How to make PCB (Printed Circuit Board) at Home [step by step]

After completing this step  wash the board with soap and use paint thinner to clear and remove ink from the board . 

How to make PCB (Printed Circuit Board) at Home [step by step]
 
Now, we need to drill the board. If you have drill machine, you can use it. If  you don't have a drill machine, don't worry. I have a solution for you.
 





You can follow my method using drill bit. I didn't buy any drill machine !!!


How to make PCB (Printed Circuit Board) at Home [step by step]
How to make PCB (Printed Circuit Board) at Home [step by step]


Thank You !

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